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and is offering to give the Governor all the assistance possible.

In most of the other cases of lynchings it is assumed that all the officials were in collusion with the forces of violence, or were at any rate in acquiescence. In the present case, however, the Governor of the State is himseli a high officer of the association. Yet we venture 10 prophesy that no more will be done in the case of the Minnesota lynchings than in the case of lynchings further south.

This Icads iis to a front face consideration of the problem of lynching. Why do white.men lynch black intens in America: We are not scaling here with the original historical cause; nor even with its present social applic: tion. We are considering merely the officient cause. White men lynch black men or any other meu Isecaise, those men's lives are unprotected either by the authoritics of the commonwealth or by the victims themselves. White men lynch Negroes in America because Negroes' lives are cheap. So long as they so remain, so long will lynching remain an evil to be talked about, written about, pretitioned against and slobbered over. Bill 1107 all the slobber, the talk or the petitions are worth the time it takes to indulge in them, so far as the saving of a single Negro life is concerned.

What, then, is the cure? The cure follows from the nature of the cause. Let Negrocs determine that their lives shall no longer be clicap; but that they will exact for them as high price as any other clement in the community under similar circumstances would exact. Let them sec to it that their lives are protected and defended. if not by the State, then certainly by themselves. Then we will see the cracker stopping to take counsel withi hini. self and to think twice before he joins a mob in whose gruesome holiday sport he himself is likely to furnisli one of the casualties.

"Let Negroes: help to make murier costly, for hy so doing they will aid the ofticers of the city. State and nation in instilling respect for law and order into the minds of the worst and lowest elements of our American cities." The law of every State says explicitly that killing in defense of one's own life is strictly proper, legal and justifiable. Therefore, it Negroes determine to defend themselves from the horrible outrage of lynching they should have the support of every official and every citizen who really believes in law and order and is determined to make the law of the land stand as a living reality among the people that made it.---July, 1920.


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THE NEGRO AND THE WAR. ( While the war lasted those of us who saw unpalatable truths were compelled to do one of two things : either tell the truth as we saw it and go to jail, or camouflage the truth that we had to tell. The present writer told the truth for the most part, in so far as it related to our race relations; but, in a few cases camouflage was safer and more effective. That camouflage. however, was never of that truckling quality which was accepted by the average American editor to such a nauseating degree. I was well aware that Woodrow Wilson's protestations of democracy were lying protestations, consciously and deliberately designed to deceive. What, then, was my duty in the fa of that fact? I chose to pretend that Woodrow Wilson meant what he said, because by so doing I could safely hold up' to contempt and ridicule the undemocratic practices of his administration and the actions of his white countrymen in regard to the Negro. How this was done is shown in the first two editorials of the following chapter.)

Is Democracy Unpatriotic ? The present administration is all right. But it has its obstacles to success. As usual some of the worst of these are its injudicious "friends." For instance, there are the people who are trying their best to "queer" us in the cyes of civilized Europe. These silly souls, when Negroes ask that the principle of "Justice in War Time”. be applied to Negroes as well as whites, reply, in effect that this should not be; that Negroes should not want Justice-in war time—and that any such demand on their part is "disloyalty." On the contrary, it is the fullest loyalty to tlır feller anel point of the I'resident's war-rimis, To say that itinere in 101 poresemme 10 incelise the President of having war aims other than those which he loans weet forili in the face of Europe's

Besicles; 110 one can deny that freerlom from lynching and disfranchisene'nt and the ending of discrimination by the Red Cross for instance - will strengthen the hand of the administration riglie mw log strengthening its hotel on the hearts of the Negro masses and will make all Negros soleliers its well as civilians more competent to give effective aill in winning the war.

Lallis duime that we consent 100 licing lyncherl "cluiring the war" 111141 sulmit tamely and willi conmmendable weakness to being Jim-crowed and disfranchiseul. l'ery well. Will not that be the proof of our spirit and of its quality? Of course. And what you call that spirit won't alter its quality, will it? Now, ask all the peoples of all the worlel what they call : people wiw smilingly consent to tlieir.omnilegra lation and destruction. They call such a people cowards --because they are cowards. In America we call such people "niggers."

Is alryone umpatriotic enough to pretend that "cowards" can lick "lluns"? No, this great world-task can be accomplished only by men linglislı men, French men. Italian mcn, American ment. Our country needls men now more than it ever did before. And those who multiply its reserve of men are adding to its strength. That is wly the true patriots who rcally love America and want it to win the war are asking America to change its Negrocs from "niggers" into men. Surely this is a patriotic request; and any one who says that it isn't must be prepared to maintain that lynching. Jim-crow and disfranchisement are consistent with patriotism and ought to he preserved. Reading the President's proclamations in a reverent spirit, wc deny both of these monstrous conclusions; and we loclieve that we have on our site tlic l'resident of America, the worlel's foremost champion of democracy who defined it as "the right of all those who submit to authority to have a VOICE in their own gover. crnment"-- whether it be in Giermany or in Georgirt. And we believe that the splenelid spirit of our common C041try, which has louickled on its sword in support of "lemocracy." will support is in this reasonable contention. ---July, 1918.

Why Is the Red Cross ? The Red Cross, or Ciencvit Inscciation, was the prodlo nict of a Swiss infielel. Ile saw how crucl 10 man were those who loved Cod most - the (liristiansand, 01111 of his large humanity and loving kindness, he evolved an organization which should bring the charity of service to lesson the lurid horrors of Christian Battleficlels.

A love that rose above the love of country the love of human kind: this was the proud principle of the Red Cross. Its nurses and its surgeons, stretcher-bearers and assistants were supposed to bring relief to those who were in pain, regardlless of whether they were "friends" or "enemies." Discrimination was a word which did not exist for them: and it is not supposed to cxist now cven as against the wounded German aviator who has bombed a Red Cross hospital.

But, alack and alas! The splendid spirit of the Swiss infidel is seemingly too high for Christian race-prejudice to reach. Where he would not discriminate even against enemies, the American branch of his international society is discriminating against most loyal friends and willing helpers—when they are Negroes. Up to date the Ameri

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