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the important revolution accomplished in the fyftem of their united government, the tranquil deliberation, and the voluntary confent of so many diftinct communities, from which the event has resulted, cannot be compar ed with the means by which most governments have been established, without returns of pious gratitude, along with an humble anticipation of the future bleffings which the paft feem to prefage." The illuftrious prefident, in the fame admirable addrefs to Congress, when he bestows a juft tribute on the talents, the rectitude, and the patriotism which adorned the fenators, selected to devife and adopt the fyftem of the prefent conftitu tion, proceeds in a strain of fublime eloquence, adorned with wisdom and forefight, to adjure the legislative body of the nation, that no feparate views, no party animofities may mifdirect the comprehenfive and equal eye which ought to watch over the great affemblage of communities and interefts; that the foundations of the national policy may be laid in the pure and immutable principles of private morality; and the pre-eminence of free government be exemplified by all the at→ tributes which can won the affections of its citizens, and1 command the respect of the world.


I dwell, fays that divine hero and legislator, on this hope, on this profpect, with every fatisfaction which an ardent love for my country can inspire ; fince there is no truth more thoroughly established, than that there exifts in the economy and courfe of nature, an indiffoluble union be tween virtue and happiness, between duty and advantage, between the genuine maxims of an honest and magnanimous people, and the folid rewards of public profperity and happiness; fince we ought to be no lefs perfuaded that the propitious fmiles of heaven can ne-3 ver be expected on a nation that disregards the eternal rules of order and right, which heaven itself has ordained; and fince the preservation of the facred fire of liberty, and the destiny of the republican form of government, are justly confidered as deeply, perhaps VOL. III.



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as finally taked on the experiment intrusted to the hands of the American people, great and luminous principles of eternal truth, never to be forgotten! And how muft Britons tremble when they read them, and reflect upon the fatal decifion of the 19th of April, but juft elapfed, concerning the flavery and the fufferings of their fellow creatures in Africa, and in the colonies of America; a decifion that must, and thall be reverfed, fince Britons can never confent to be punished by the avenging majefty of Heaven, to please the vile fordid views of planters, of flave merchants, and rich proprietors of West India eftates, while the voice of the nation, of humanity, and chriftianity, cries aloud for justice.


The dye on which the future grandeur, profperity, and happiness of America is cast, is the education of youth: If that in the now rifing generation hall operate to effect the wishes of Washington and of Philan thropy, disappointment is impoffible; for on that plats form the fuperftructure of future fociety must be raifed, and from the materials that are ufed, and the art that is employed in the work, the beauty or deformity, the ftrength or the weakness, the ufe or infignificancy, must be determined. This is a fubject of immenfe and unmeasureable importance, which has arifen from the nature of the conteft in America, that was fucceeded by her final independence: For during these troubles, when all men were foldiers, or engaged in the violence of hoftility or party, when every advantage was taken of the situation of the country, from the depreciation of the current, money to build private fortune at the expence of public benefit and moral honefty, what kind of inftitution, what fort of example could be afforded to children? Thefe evils did by no means ter minate with the war; they must extend until new virtue is infufed into, the mafs of the people, by a pro per education of youth.

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The iniquity of the laws that became for a time neceffaty to keep up any form of government, eftranged the minds of the citizens of America from the ha bits of justice, and I fear, from the love of it.

- The nature of obligations, by the unhappy state of the country, was fo far changed, that he was reckoned the honeft man, who, from principle, as a Whig, delayed or refufed to pay his debt to a Tory, or a Tory to a Whig. The mounds which government had erected to fecure the observance of hohefty in the commercial in tercourse of man with man, were broken down. Truth, honour and justice were fwept away by the overflowing deluge of legal iniquity; nor have they yet per fectly re-affumed their ancient and accustomed feats. Time and induftry have already, in a great degree, repaired the loffes of property, which the citizens fuftained during the war; but both have hitherto failed in effacing the taint which was then communicated to the principles of the people; nor can the total ablution be expected till a new generation arifes, unpractised in the iniquities of their fathers. Vide the Hiftory of the American Revolution, by David Ranfay, M. D. Phi ladelphia 1789. 2 vols 8vo. Vol. 2d p. 136 & fparfim.

I am forry to learn from gentlemen on the other fide of the Atlantic, that no very ferious attention has hitherto been paid to the proper inftruction of youth: That parents being in general much pinched by the poverty that has sprung from the war, and from project, do not launch out as they ought in this most effectual project, for the welfare and happiness of their pofterity, and of the nation.

That the vicious indulgence to children in their nonage, so common to parents who are harraffed with cares and difficulties of their own, is very common in the United States.

That the colleges and schools have not hitherto been put on a respectable footing; and that the teachers are paid by falaries, inftead of honoraries from the students,

which must prove fatal to the progrefs of literature: See Adam Smith's wealth of nations under the head of colleges. That claffical learning is not held in fuffici ent esteem, and what is extremely remarkable, has been in fome degree publicly discouraged by an eminent profeffor of Philadelphia, who is otherwise a per fon of great prudence and merit, to whom I recom+ mend the perufal and due confideration of Doctor Bear tie's excellent treatise on the fubject of claffical education; a book no doubt to be found in all the principal libraries of North America, and which argues fo con vincingly on the fubject, that I am astonished any man of claffical learning himself, fhould have become an advocate against it.

No time ought to be loft in North America, to introduce a general attention to the right institution of youth. Combinations ought to be formed in every county, province and city, for that purpose, and fmail academies, instead of large colleges, ought to be promoted, particularly under the direction of clergymen; by which means a brood of learned clergymen will be established on the continent, and every parish will have the feeds of useful learning carefully fown, which will produce a virtuous and profperous peopie hereaf


Sunday schools fhould be every where established for the inftruction of fervants, and of the labouring poor, and premiums ought to be given at the expence of the ftate, with a filver medal to be hung round the neck of those, who at the quarterly or annual examinations at these funday schools, have been found best inftructed, and of the most exemplary morals; and fimilar honours should be granted by the trustees of the different colleges, to the young men who have deserved them by their learning and virtue.

The education of the female fex ought to be particularly attended to, and the fatal error avoided, that a

woman's chief excellence confifts in being able to make a pudding.

On the virtue, diligence, and fufficient learning and fentiment of women, depends the colour and texture of the characters of their fons. Errors, fays Hippocrates, of the first concoction, are feldom to be cured by a fecond. Men finell of the nursery all their days; nor is it poffible by fchools and colleges, to eradicate the principles that are rooted in children by their mothers, and by the women that furround them in infancy. Citizens of North America, I address you in the words of your hiftorian, who has recorded the glories of your fuccefsful attainment of liberty and independence. "Cherish and reward the philofophers, the itatefmen and the patriots, who devote their talents and time, at the expence of their private interests, to the toils of enlightening and directing their fellow-citizens, and thereby rescue citizens and rulers of republics, from the common and too often merited charge of ingratitude: Practice induftry, frugality, temperance, moderation, obedience to the law, and the whole lovely train of republican virtues Banish from your borders, and from your land, the liquid fire of the West Indies, and the effeminacy of the Eaft: Venerate the plough, the hoe, and all the implements of agriculture; but remember that the improvements of agriculture, and of every useful art, must depend upon fcience: Cultivate therefore useful fcience, and encourage it in others; hold forth your purses to afford it to the people; for without science there can be no reason, and without reason there can be no government, and without government there can be no fecurity.

I am, Mr. Editor, your humble servant,

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