« TrướcTiếp tục »
They were both much afflicted at the feparation. Not that they thought of marriage; for he was too young; and befides, there was an unfurmountable bar to their union. He was born a Duin-wafal or gentleman; fhe a commoner of an inferior tribe. And whilft ancient manners and cuftoms were religiously adhered to by a primitive people, the two claffes kept as unmixed in their alliances, as the coasts of Indoftan. In thofe times, a gentleman of no fortune, or in Dr. Johnson's phrafe, a beggar of high birth, was refpected by his countrymen, and addreffed in the plural number; whereas, a commoner, though ten times more fubstantial, was faluted with thou and thee, and, with all his pelf, could not pretend to the pooreft gentlewoman.
But this had been no bar to their friendship. In every age and country, boys and girls, left to themselves, pay little regard to rank or external circumstances in the choice of their companions. Spirit, generofity, and complacency of manners, are the qualities that knit young hearts together. Befides, in every other article but marriage, the old Highland gentry and commons lived together in habits of kindness and familiarity, of which, at present, there are few examples.
It is not surprising then, that the young woman should in time get the better of a hopeless paffion; at leaft, confider it as no bar to an establishment in life. Her marriage, therefore, was what is called a prudential one: She had no objection to the man; only when the confented to give him her hand, her heart was not at her own difpofal. Her first love still lurked there, though reafon and virtue whifpered the impoffibility of his being ever her's. In the courfe of a few months, her husband's worth and tendernefs, and the defire of standing well in the opinion of the world, had greatly weakened thefe impreffions; fo that hitherto she had acted her part in the marriage state with propriety and applaufe. A meeting however fo romantic and unexpected as the prefent, was a temptation too ftrong to be withstood. A thousand tender incidents of childhood and youth crowded into his mind, and too fuccessfully fuggefted, that the comparison of his happiest years was alone worthy of her love.
The young man, on his part, was equally captivated; and, indeed, the charms which had touched his heart in early youth, were now in full bloom, and, in his opinion, much improved by time; and gueffing by her demeanour, and the language of her eyes, that he ftill maintained a place in her affections, he listened enamoured to her converfe, which, being in the prefence of her husband, was lively and innocent; while hurried away by the impulfe of paffion, his purpose was to carry her off to a country, where they were both unknown.
The husband at length proposed to his wife to proceed on her journey, when the ftranger politely offered to accompany them a few miles. By the way, he found means to whifper his fcheme, and was happy to find his old mistress impatient as he could with, to abandon, for his fake, all that a virtuous woman holds dear. Such was the return The made her husband for all his tenderness and love! and fo blind was fhe to that mifery and fhame that were foon to overtake her! Towards the foot of the mountain, in a wild woody glen, the husband having occafion to stay a little behind, the guilty pair made their elopement, and were out of fight in a moment. Bereaved thus of his wife, and of his harp, the wretched husband exclaimed in an agony of grief: "Fool that I was, to burn my harp for "her fake+!"
This exclamation has long been proverbial in the Highlands, when an honeft generous man is treated with monftrous ingratitude.
Intelligence refpecting Arts, &c.
A new difcovered Method of producing Yeaft. SOME years ago, the ingenious Dr. Henry of Manchefter' found by experiment, that by the addition of fome fixed air to a decoction of malt, in proper circumftances, real Yeast might be produced, that was capable of raifing ↑ Smeirg a loifgeadh a thiompan ria.
bread, and had every other known quality of Yeast obtained by the ufual mode of fermentation.
This procefs, however, on account of its requiring a particular apparatus, and materials, with which common people are in general unacquainted, has never, that we have heard of, been applied to any ufe in economy or arts. The account of it was published about three years ago in the tranfactions of the philofophical fociety of Man
Since then it has been difcovered, that Yeast may be actually produced at pleasure, from a decoction of malt, without the addition of fixed air, or any thing else whatever. This discovery was made by a plain man, named JOSEPH SENYOR, fervant to the Reverend Mr. William Mafon of Afton near Rotheram in Yorkshire, and is published in the eighth volume of the Tranfactions of the Society of Arts in London, who, after having tried the experiment according to the recipe after mentioned, and finding it to fucceed perfectly in every respect, awarded to him a bounty of twenty pounds. As it may be of ufe in many circumftances to know how this may be done, the recipe for obtaining this is here transcribed.
Recipe to convert a Decoction of Malt into Yeaft, without any Addition.
"Procure three earthen or wooden veffels, of different "fizes and apertures, one capable of holding two quarts, (i. e. one pint Scots) the other three or four, and the "third five or fix: boil a quarter of a peck of malt for "about eight or ten minutes in three pints (three mutch"kins) of water; and when a quart (a chopin) is pour"ed off from the grains, let it ftand in a cool place till not "quite cold, but retaining that degree of heat which the "brewers ufually find to be proper when they begin to "work their liquor; then remove the veffel into fome warm fituation, near a fire, where the thermometer stands "between 70 and 80 degrees, (Fahrenheit) and there let "it remain till the fermentation begins, which will be "plainly perceived within thirty hours [the society say the "fermentation came on in three days]; add then two " quarts (one pint Scots) more of a like decoction of This seems to be too fmall a quantity of water, but I transcribe faithfully.
'malt, when cool, as the firft was; and mix the whole in "the larger fized veffel, and ftir it well in, which must be "repeated in the ufual way, as it rifes in a common vat: "then add a still greater quantity of the fame decoction, "to be worked in the largest veffel, which will produce "Yeaft enough for a brewing of forty gallons (ten gallons "Scots)."
"Some of this Yeaft," say the Society, after having repeated the above experiment," being mixed with a due proportion of flour, water, and falt, anfwered all the purpofes intended, for bread; and might certainly have been equally well applied to brewing, in the common method, In fine, being pure and good Yeaft, it will answer all the intentions of that useful article."
It has been long known that the juice of the vine can be brought to ferment after this manner, without the addition of any Yeaft; but it seems never before to have been fufpected, that malt liquor could be made to undergo the like procefs. By means of this difcovery, no one needs now be at a lofs for Yeast, for carrying forward the procefs of brewing wherever they may be fituated, in particular at fea; fo that on this, and other accounts, I conceive it must prove an useful article of information to many perfons.
The theory of fermentation, as it has been hitherto ufually taught, is doubtlefs, in many refpects, erroneous. It has been generally believed, that all kinds of vinous fermentation depended upon a faccharine vegetable juice; and that of course, it was only fweet fubftances that were liable to run into it. Hence it was believed, that the process of malting was neceffary for rendering grain capable of undergoing the fermentative process; and that until the grain fhould thus be rendered sweet, it could not be fermented.It is now, however, well known, that meal and grain any how broke down into fmall parts, can be made to ferment, although it has never been malted; and it was found in this experiment, that the addition of fugar to the wort prevented the fermentation. I fhall here fubjoin a procefs for baking bread with a very small quantity of yeast, that ought to be more generally known than it is,
Recipe for making a very small quantity of Yeaft an*fwer the Purpose of baking a large quantity of flour. "TAKE four table fpoonfuls of pure water, heated to the warmth of new-drawn milk ;-add to that fome flour, "and about a tea-fpoonful of good Yeaft, and ftir and "mix it well, till it be of the confiftence of thick cream, or batter for making pan-cakes: cover it up, and fet "it in a place where the temperature is moderate,→→ "that is, in a warm chamber in winter, and in one "without fire in it, or that is not expofed to the fun in "fummer: In fix or eight hours, a fermentation will commence,—the surface will hove up, and at the end of "twelve or fourteen hours, it will have acquired the appearance and confiftency of fine light yeast. You may "then add to this twice as much water, as at first you employed, ftill milk warm.-Stir the whole, fo as to mix "it thoroughly;—then add more fresh flour, and stir it up "thoroughly as at firft, till it be again of the confiftence of "batter; cover it again up, and let it ftand as before; the "fermentation will immediately commence;-and in a few hours, it will again affume the appearance of fine light yeast. If you have now a quantity fufficient for your purpose, it may be ufed instead of yeaft for bread; "but if you ftill want more, you may again double the quantity, by adding as much water as you had employed at both the former times, and mixing it up with flour as "before, and leaving it again to ferment.-How often this process might be thus repeated with fafety, I cannot tell; " but certain it may be repeated three times, as here de"fcribed, without any rifk of becoming four ;-and the "time required for this purpofe, will be about twenty-four "or thirty hours. One tea-fpoonful of yeaft, my recipe faid, might ferve to bake a bufhel of flour.-I never had "occafion to push the experiment fo far; but believe it "might be fo.
"When you have obtained as much of this kind of yeast would be fufficient of the best common yeaft to bake "the quantity of bread at the time, you need not proceed "farther. Mix up this yeatt in your paste, as you would "do any other;-and when it is well kneaded into it, form your paste into the fhape you mean your bread to be ;"but take care to let it lie upon the board for fome hours