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as finally taked on the experiment intrusted to the hands of the American people, great and luminous principles of eternal truth, never to be forgotten! And how muft Britons tremble when they read them, and reflect upon the fatal decifion of the 19th of April, but juft elapfed, concerning the flavery and the fufferings of their fellow creatures in Africa, and in the colonies of America; a decifion that must, and thall be reversed, fince Britons can never consent to be punished by the avenging majefty of Heaven, to please the vile fordid views of planters, of flave merchants, and rich proprietors of West India eftates, while the voice of the nation, of humanity, and christianity, cries aloud for justice.



The dye on which the future grandeur, profperity, and happiness of America is caft, is the education of youth. If that in the now rifing generation shall operate to effect the wishes of Washington and of Philanthropy, disappointment is impoffible; for on that plat form the fuperftructure of future fociety must be raised, and from the materials that are ufed, and the art that is employed in the work, the beauty or deformity, the ftrength or the weakness, the ufe or infignificancy, must be determined. This is a fubject of immenfe and unmeasureable importance, which has arifen from the nature of the conteft in America, that was fucceeded by her final independence: For during these troubles, when all men were foldiers, or engaged in the violence of hoftility or party, when every advantage was taken of the fituation of the country, from the depreciation of the current money to build private fortune at the expence of public benefit and moral honefty, what kind of inftitution, what fort of example could be afforded to children? Thefe evils did by no means terminate with the war; they must extend until new virtue is infufed into the mafs of the people, by a pro per education of youth.: br 19


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The iniquity of the laws that became for a time neceffaty to keep up any form of government, eftrang ed the minds of the citizens of America from the ha bits of justice, and I fear, from the love of it.

The nature of obligations, by the unhappy ftate of the country, was fo far changed, that he was reckoned the honeft man, who, from principle, as a Whig, delayed or refufed to pay his debt to a Tory, or a Tory to a Whig. The mounds which government had erected to fecure the observance of hohefty in the commercial in tercourse of man with man, were broken down. Truth, honour and justice were fwept away by the overflow ing deluge of legal iniquity; nor have they yet perfectly re-affumed their ancient and accuftomed feats. Time and induftry have already, in a great degree, repaired the loffes of property, which the citizens suftained during the war; but both have hitherto failed in effacing the taint which was then communicated to the principles of the people; nor can the total ablution be expected till a new generation arifes, unpractised in the iniquities of their fathers. Vide the Hiftory of the American Revolution, by David Ramfay, M. D. Phi ladelphia 1789. 2 vols 8vo. Vol. 2d p. 136 & fparfim.

I am forry to learn from gentlemen on the other fide of the Atlantic, that no very ferious attention has hitherto been paid to the proper inftruction of youth: That parents being in general much pinched by the poverty that has sprung from the war, and from pro ject, do not launch out as they ought in this most effectual project, for the welfare and happiness of their pofterity, and of the nation.

That the vicious indulgence to children in their nonage, fo common to parents who are harraffed with cares and difficulties of their own, is very common in the United States.

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That the colleges and fchools have not hitherto been put on a refpectable footing; and that the teachers are paid by falaries, inftead of honoraries from the students,

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which must prove fatal to the progrefs of literature. See Adam Smith's wealth of nations under the head of colleges. That claffical learning is not held in fuffici ent esteem, and what is extremely remarkable, has been in fome degree publicly discouraged by an eminent profeffor of Philadelphia, who is otherwise a per fon of great prudence and merit, to whom I recom mend the perufal and due confideration of Doctor Bear tie's excellent treatise on the subject of claffical education; a book no doubt to be found in all the principal libraries of North America, and which argues fo.com vincingly on the fubject, that I am aftonished any mań of claffical learning himself, should have become an advocate against it.


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No time ought to be loft in North America, to introduce a general attention to the right inftitution of youth. Combinations ought to be formed in every county, province and city, for that purpose, and small academies, inftead of large colleges, ought to be promoted, particularly under the direction of clergymen; by which means a brood of learned clergymen will be established on the continent, and every parish will have the feeds of useful learning carefully fown, which will produce a virtuous and profperous peopie hereaf


Sunday schools fhould be every where established for the inftruction of fervants, and of the labouring poor, and premiums ought to be given at the expence of the ftate, with a filver medal to be hung round the neck of those, who at the quarterly or annual examinations at these funday schools, have been found best inftructed, and of the most exemplary morals; and fimilar honours should be granted by the trustees of the different colleges, to the young men who have deserved them by their learning and virtue.

The education of the female fex ought to be particularly attended to, and the fatal error avoided, that a

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woman's chief excellence confifts in being able to make a pudding.

On the virtue, diligence, and fufficient learning and fentiment of women, depends the colour and texture of the characters of their fons. Errors, fays Hippocrates, of the first concoction, are feldom to be cured by a fecond. Men fmell of the nursery all their days; nor is it poffible by fchools and colleges, to eradicate the principles that are rooted in children by their mothers, and by the women that furround them in infancy. Citizens of North America, I address you in the words of your hiftorian, who has recorded the glories of your fuccefsful attainment of liberty and independence." Cherish and reward the philofophers, the statesmen and the patriots, who devote their talents and time, at the expence of their private interefts, to the toils of enlightening and directing their fellow-citizens, and thereby rescue citizens and rulers of republics, from the common and too often merited charge of ingratitude: Practice industry, frugality, temperance, moderation, obedience to the law, and the whole lovely train of republican virtues? Banish from your borders, and from your land, the liquid fire of the West Indies, and the effeminacy of the Eaft: Venerate the plough, the hoe, and all the implements of agriculture; but remember that the improvements of agriculture, and of every useful art, must depend upon fcience: Cultivate therefore useful fcience, and encourage it in others; hold forth your purses to afford it to the people; for without science there can be no reason, and without reason there can be no government, and without government there can be no fecurity.

I am, Mr. Editor, your humble servant,



Plan of an Affociation for the Improvement of Chemical
Arts in Great Britain.

To confer on the manufactures of Britain an indisputed fuperiority in all markets, they must be equally good at leaft, and be fold cheaper than thofe of other nations: But nothing tends fo much to diminish the expence of manufactures, as improvements in the chemical departments; with regard to which our knowledge is but yet in its infancy.


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It chances, unfortunately for us, that most of the important chemical discoveries in arts have been made in foreign parts, and our manufacturers acquire a knowledge of them only in common with thofe of all other nations. We have, therefore, no fuperiority above others in this refpect; but in many cafes, the reverse.


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But if men of genius were encouraged to profecute difcoveries at home, and were certain of deriving a profit from these discoveries, proportioned to their real importance, we would foon find, that the people of Britain would not be behind any other nation, either in refpect to industry or ingenuity.

To call forth that industry, then, let us fuppofe, for example, that all the bleachers in Britain, or as many of them as fhould choose to unite for that purpose, should join into one great fociety, and contribute a fum annually to be diftributed by them in premiums to those who should communicate to this fociety any important chemical discovery respecting their own profeffion. The whole money subscribed, to be diftributed among the competitors, in proportion to the estimated value of each difcovery, refpectively;-or in the other ways that shall be afterwards defcribed.

Thefe premiums to be adjudged and apportioned by a committee of manufacturers, affifted by fome able

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