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the civil war, by the engagements which took place at Lexington and Concord, the lofs on both fides, and the general preparations for war which now took place in the colonies, [124*. 129]-the great fufferings which the inhabitants underwent at Boston, previous to the fecond meeting of the continental congrefs at Philadelphia, May the 10th, 1775, [130*]-reinforcements made to the king's army on May the 25th, at Bofton, which for a while continue inactive, and the reafons impartially confidered, till the continental congrefs refolved that the compact between the crown of Great Britain and the province of Maffachufet's Bay was diffolved; which was foon followed by a proclamation of rebellion by general Gage, and by the engagement at Bunker's Hill, [132. 137*]-the dreadful calamity at Bofton by a fire on May 17th, 1775, when the lofs was faid to amount to 40,000l. fterling, [121.]— The fubftance of general Howe's proclamation in October 1775, when he fuccceded general Gage in the command of the army at Bofton, the reinforcement of the continental army before Bolton, and the fevere cannonading of the town of Falmouth, October 18th, 1775, when it was nearly deftroyed, xix. [33. 35]-the various caufes which contributed to make the fituation of the British army at Bofton, during the winter of 1775, very painful and difagreeable, [145*. 147 -the British army is unexpectedly attacked by the army of the rebels in the beginning of March 1776, who open new batteries, bombard the town, and make the fituation of the British army very critical, till the British general with his forces quitted the town, and retired to Halifax in Nova Scotia, leaving general Washington in full poffeffion of Boston, who marched into it with drums beating, colours flying, and in all the triumph of victory, on the 17th of March 1776, by which means the long contefted town of Bofton was given up to the rebels, and the eftates and effects of thofe emigrants who had accompanied general Howe to Halifax were ordered to be fold, and the produce applied to the public fervice, [147*. 151*]-The general terror which was excited by the lofs of Ti
conderoga, and the expected progress of the favages, although it was remarkable that in the midft of all these difatters and confequent terrors, in the feveral provinces belonging to this government, there was no appearance of fubmiffion to the mother country, but on the contrary general Arnold was fent with a reinforcement to the northern army of the rebels who had fled to Saratoga after the lofs of Ticonderoga, xx. [155, 156]-The fuccefs which attended the expedition of the British troops to Bedford, Fair Haven, and to Martha's Vineyard, xxii. [1, 2]-the ftate of the French fleet at Bolton, and the violent riot and affray in which numbers of French and Americans were engaged, and the French were roughly handled, [39. 40]-the remarkable fcarcity of provifions in September 1778, till the New England cruizers had taken a number of provifion veffels on their way from Europe to New York, with which D'Etaign's fleet was fully fupplied with provifions before he failed from Bolton for the Weft Indies, previous to which he iffued a declaration addreffed to the French Canadians, with a particular account of the contents of this declaration, [40. 42]. admiral Byron's fleet driven off this coaft by a violent hurricane, which afforded an opportunity for the departure of the French fquadron, by which means the Britifh fquadron was detained at Rhode Ifland for near two months to repair the damages done by the tempeft,  -the nature and iflue of the expedition to Connecticut, under fir George Collier and governor Tryon, in July 1779, [190, 191]-the oppofition which lieutenant-colonel Maclane met with in eftablishing a ftrong poft on the river Penobscot (in the eastern confines of New England, where that colony borders on Nova Scotia), when he was befieged by an armed force from Bofton, till he was relieved by fir George Collier, who deftroys the whole rebel marine in the river Penobfcot, [195*. 198*]-For the ftate of population in Maffachufet's Bay, belonging to this colony, and for earthquakes, ftorms, and inundations in various parts of this colony, and at various times,fee NATURAL HISTORY. Newfoundland is taken by the French and retaken by the English in the G 4 Space
fpace of three months in the year 1762,
in 1776 in this colony, with the previ-
New York; contribution to the Infant
. -The very laudable refolu-
vii. -The riots and ftagnation
establishment of a market for the fale of home-made manufactures, and the great encouragement given to it,  the folemn thanksgiving appointed to be held on account of the repeal of the ftamp act in 1766, -the renewal of a treaty of friendship with the Indian nations in the neighbourhood of this province, -a petition prefented to the county court by the inhabitants of Wallingford, containing fome menaces in cafe their petition was not heard, -their proceedings in confequence of his majefty's recommendation to indemnify the fufferers in the late riots of 1765 and 1766,  -The remarkable act of the affembly in 1766, which regulated the provisions of the army in a manner that opposed an act of the mother-country relating to this bufinefs: this produced in England the bill for reftraining all acts of the affembly till they had complied with all the terms of the act of parliament; and hence was revived an oppofition in the colonies to the mother-country which was never fuppreffed, x.  -the improving ftate of the manufactories for brafs-wire, and for enamelling all kinds of trinkets, — Proceedings of the fociety for promoting arts, &c. in December 1767, xi.  refolutions entered into by the inhabitants of this city, September the 5th, 1763, not to purchase or take any goods or merchandise imported from Great Britain, until the acts of parliament laying duty on paper, glafs, &c. are repealed, [236, 237]—The proceedings of the fpeaker and the houfe of affembly against the authors of fome feditious papers and libels in December 1779, xiii. —An inflammatory notice difperfed through this city in December 1773, xvii. [87, 88-the dreadful fire on December the 29th, 1773, which deftroyed the government houfe, --the fum of 5,000l. currency was voted February the 28th, 1774, to compenfate in fome measure the lofs fuftained by the fire at the government houfe, — eighteen boxes loaded with tea were thrown into the fea in April 1774, -The difapprobation which was fhewn by the affembly in this province to the refolutions of the general Congrefs, when all the reft of the provinces were unanimous in approving them in the beginning of January 1775, xviii.
[123, 124*]-its critical fituation after the affair at Lexington, when this province adopts the measures of the general Congrefs, and applies for their direction how to act upon the landing of the forces expected from England, -The distracted fate of affairs in this colony previous to the ar rival of the royal fleet and army in August 1776; the plots at New York and Albany in favour of the royal caufe; the arrival of the army at Long Ifland, and the defeat of the provincials upon it, who retire filently from their camp, and quit the ifland, xix. [169. 173*]-the fruitlefs conference between lord Howe and a committee of the Congrefs, previous to his defcent on York Inland, and the capture of the city of New York, which is taken by the royal army after having been fet on fire and nearly deftroyed by fome incendiaries to prevent its being of any benefit to the conqueror, [173. 176 -The fubftance of the loyal addrefs prefented by the inhabitants of this city to lord Howe and general Howe,in confequence of the declaratious which were illued by his lordship and the general in his majefty's name, and the re-establishment of the former legal government in this city, and the adminiftration of justice, by the re-opening of the feveral courts, [185, 186]-the royal grants to certain naval officers who exerted themselves in their country's caufe at New York Island, -The loyalty fhewed by the inhabitants of this province, and by the inhabitants of Queen's County in Long Island, and by thofe of York Ifland, the latter end of the year 1776, xx. -ftate of affairs in this city previous to the opening of the campaign in the fummer of 1777, when the loyal provincials were embodied, and placed under the command of governor Tryron, who goes on an expedition to Peak's Hill and to Danbury, and other places in the neighbourhood of Connecticut, where the magazines were destroyed, [113. 116]the royal army was detained at New York, and prevented from tak ing the field through the want of tents and field-equipage, which delay was of the utmost importance to the Americans, -The British army are conveyed by the fleet from Sandy Hook to this city, where they arrive on the 5th of July 1778, xxi. [226*,
227*1-alarm and preparations at this place on the arrival of the Toulon fquadron on the coast of America, and its appearance before Sandy Hook, where they caft anchor, [227*. 229*.] The advantages which the royalifts received from the expedition of the British troops to the island called Martha's Vineyard, xxii. -the fuccefsful expedition from this place in 1778, under the conduct of commodore Parker and colonel Campbell, for the reduction of the province of Georgia, which was followed by the defeat of the rebels, by the capture of the town of Savannah, (itored at that time with provifions and ammunition) and by the recovery of the whole province of Georgia to the British government, [29. 35]-the fuccefs of the expedition concerted between fir Henry Clinton and fir George Collier to Chefapeak Bay from this place, in May 1779, [186, 187]-the expedi tion up the North River from this place, the prodigious advantage which the naval command of that river and boundary afforded to an army, and the fuccefs which attended general Vaughan and general Pattiton at Stoney Point and Verplanks, [188, 189]the injury and depredations on the British trade to, and from, this city by the enemy on the Connecticut coafts, which induced fir Henry Clinton to order an expedition to Connecticut under the command of fir George Collier and governor Tryon, in July 1779, and the iffue of that expedition, [190, 191]-The unexpected danger to which the severity of the winter of 1779 had expofed this colony, and the prudential and speedy meatures taken for the common defence by major general Pattifon, who commanded at this place in the abfence of fir Henry Clinton, who was gone on an expedition against Charlestown in South Carolina, xxiii. [224, 225*]-For the state of population in 1774, fee NATURAL HISTORY.
Niagara, fuccefsful operations of the English against it in 1759, with a defcription of the importance of this poft in America, and the happy confequences of taking it, to the English affairs in this country, i. 29. 34-a valuable difcovery of goods buried by the French at this place after the conqueft of it by the English, 122.
Nicuport, French agree to evacuate this town, v. 
Norfolk, America, reduced to ashes in 1775, xix. [31, 32. 113.] Norkitten, the battle of, and the very critical and dangerous ftate of his Piuflian majelty's affairs at this time,
i. 20, 21.
Normandy, famous refolution of the parliament in 1760 relating to a royal edict, iii. -Encouragement to the importation of English wool, vii. 
Nova Scotia, limits of the English and French fettlements in this country unfettled at the peace of Utrecht, and the melancholy confequences it produced to the general peace of Europe, i. 2, 3.—the French obliged to leave the country, 4-The number of whites and blacks fuppofed capable of bearing arms in 1766, computed at 10,000 men, ix. -The order of his majelty's council in England, pub. lithed July 1st, 1768, forbidding the governor of this colony from paffing any grants for lands in his majesty's ifland of St. John, unless his majesty's order of council directing the fame fhall be produced to him on or before the 1st of May 1769, xi. —The amount of British hips and feamen employed in the trade between Great Britain and this colony, of the value of the goods imported from Great Britain to this colony, and of the goods or produce of this colony exported to Great Britain or elsewhere, xii. -His majesty's donation of one thousand pounds in 1770, towards the relief and affiftance of the Protefiant diffenting minifters in this colony, xiii. -The great modera. tion contained in the petition of this colony, which was prefented to both houfes of parliament at the latter end of the year 1775, the great attention which administration at firit paid to it, and the refolutions relating to it which were propofed by the minifter, and paffed in a committee as foundations for an intended bill, though no bill was afterwards brought in, xix. [121*. 123-For a violent storm in 1760, fee NATURAL HISTORY. Nova Scotia, parliamentary grants to, in 1758, i. 127-In 1759, ii. 171. 174. In 1760, iii. -In 1961 and 1762, v. [152. 155. 164. 167]In 1763, vi. [177.179]-In 1764, vii.
[157. 160]-In 1765, viii. [236. 238]
In 1766. ix. [200. 202]-In 1767, x. [216.218]-In 1768, xi. [261,262] -In 1769, xii. [218, 219]-In 1770, xiii. [234 236]-In 1771, xiv. [222, 223-In 1772, xv. [209, 210]-In 1773, xvi. [226, 227]-In 1774, xvii. [250.252]-In 1775, xviii. -In 1776, xix. -11777, XX.  -In 1778, xxi. [276. 278]—In 1779, xxii. [325-329] Nuremberg, a free city in Franconia, laid under a fevere contribution by the Pruffians, v. 
OCZACOW; its fituation and importance as one of the principal keys of all the intermediate provinces, delcribed, xii. [17, 18]-the repulfe which general Romanzow received in 1769, was reprefented at Constantinople as a compleat victory, Firm in its attachment to the Porte, but not likely to make any extraordinary defence; fingle and expofed as it is, without fupport, and the dreadful fate of Bender before its eyes, xiii. 
Ohio, the; origin of the English fettlements on, and difpute they produced with the French, i. 2, 3-The origin, plan, and iffue of the war between the English and the Indians fettled on it in 1763, vi. [23. 32]—vii. Grant made to feveral perfons of lands upon it in 1778, xxi.  Olmutz; befieged by the Pruffian army, which, after it had encountered many difficulties and hardships, was obliged to raise the siege, i. [41, 42] Omoa; the fuccefsful expedition which was made by the English under the conduct of captain Luttrell, who took the fortrefs of this place and the Spanish register fhips which had taken shelter in this fort in October 1780; the number of Spanish prifoners which were taken, the quintals of quick filver they found in the fort, and the nature of the convention which was concluded between the British commanders on the one fide, and the Spanish governor and officers on the other, xxiii. [211*.214]a very memorable anecdote of a British feaman engaged in taking this fort, [214, 215"] Orcke, defeat of general Bulow by the French near the river called, iii. 
Oriental learning encouraged by the
Orleans, New; granted by the French
Oftend; French agree to evacuate this town, v. -Made a free port in 1769, xii. -Flourishing ftate of the commerce with Triete, xviii.  Ofwego, Fort; when, by whom, and for what purpofe it was built, i. 13taken and demolished by the French in 1757, 13.
PADERBORN; English troops canton
ed for the winter in 1760, iii.  -fcarcity of provifions in it, and the general difcontents produced by it in England and in Germany, E51, 52]` -Taken by the French, iv.  Palermo; the infurrection which happened in this ifland in 1771, occafioned by a fcarcity of bread, in which the people had maffacred fome of the viceroy's guards, xiv. -The impolitic government which has prevailed in this country for many years, and