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devised, as the drynefs of some seasons does not even afford a sufficient supply of rice.

It is therefore necefsary for the villages to be indulged in laying out the dry ground near them in inclosures, where they might cultivate yams, potatoes, melons, pompions, beans, c. and fruit trees for their own use without deduction.

This would enable them to employ the slaves and lower classes throughout the year, in a healthy and robust state, for the culture of the great crop, and advantage of the revenue.

I would recommend that villages be marked out in those parts of the Jaguhire that remain unoccupied since the late war, where the native pensioners may be permitted to settle at pleasure, exempt from all taxation, for at least ten years to come; and in the home farms, of like deserted description, the Wotters, who do all the heavy work of removing earth, may be permitted to settle with great advantage to Madras.

It gives me much satisfaction to observe the directors corresponding on the article of indigo, with men of such adequate information as the lords committee of the privy council for trade, as published in October last by the honourable the governor general, and request you will transmit the honourable court a small box filled with the white covering of insects, mentioned in my last letter, which I now find to be the covering of an insect similar to the lac insect described by Mr. Keir of Patna.

From the same to the same.


Dec. 18. 1789.

THE people I employ here have at last transplanted healthy young trees of the diospyros ebenum, from the mountains near Tripati, into the garden at the nopalry, the

reverend Mr John of Tranquebar has supplied eugenia jambos and artocarpus incisa; Mr Steuart at Changama, santalum album; Mr Mein at Trichinopoly, some, young plants of a tree, the bark of which is a very fine kind of cork, as well as plants of a tree said to produce a kind of benzoin, and santalum album; and my inquiries have discovered dammer trees in the neighbourhood of Tripati, the produce of which constitutes a considerable article of the trade between the western coast of this peninsula and China.

On these mountains Dr Koening described the gardenia enneandria, and gardenia gummifera, as two different species, and the care with which he distinguished species precludes the idea he could be mistaken; they both yield a resinous granulated sap, pofsefsing the aroma of the drug called gum elemi, a concrete piece of which I have the honour to transmit you for the inspection of the learned in Europe.

Accompanying this is a specimen of the bow-string flax mentioned in my letter to Dr Berry of the 15th ultimo, which, for the reasons there stated, I think an object worthy every possible attention, and likewise directed to the honourable Court of Directors.


Mr Mason from Kew garden is on his third voyage to the Cape of Good Hope, to whom, and to colonel Gordon, I intend transmitting copies of my publications, with a view to render the nopalry garden more extensively useful; and as none of our outward bound fhips touch at the Cape, the compliment of a letter from you to that government, stating the establishment of a garden here for the culture of foreign plants, would prove highly serviceable, by enabling these gentlemen to procure conveyance for many valuable productions of their wide and unwearied researches.

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Your order to the fhips under dispatch for the receipt of a box containing China, Isle of France, and Kew garden nopals, four of each to be left at St Helena under the care and management of the governor, will be necessary.

In your first general letter you may acquaint the honourable Court of Directors, that the two Kew garden nopals, sent on the Bridgewater, have multiplied in the course of sixteen months to 185 plants, although one of them was killed by a sudden fall of rain in July, there being 144 at the nopalry, sixteen in my garden, including the original plant, which is now five feet high, three in a garden I caused to be made near Conjeviram; three with baron Richel, at Ennore; four with Mr Young at Ongole; two sent to Calcutta ; four to Mr Roxburgh, at Chamirla Cottah; four to Mr Fleming at Afka; three to major Yvon at the Isle of France; and the four now in readiness for St Helena, I am, &'c.

From the same to the same.


Dec. 29. 1789.

As it appears by the experiments made at the instance of the lords committee of the privy council for trade, that the indigo of this country is intrinsically good, notwithstanding the adulterations practised in its preparation, some atcentions of government are, therefore, wanting to render the permifsion of conveyance on board the honourable company's fhips of much utility.

To illustrate the propriety of farther attention to the country, I need only mention the purchase of Pegu timber, when Rajamundry teak is of a better quality, and in quantity sufficient for the use of the whole coast.

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But the Rajamundry teak, after it is purchased, and thrown into the Gadavery, is taxed by every zemindar in your territories bordering on the river, till it arrives at the

sea side, in a duty amounting to more than double the prime cost.

It is easy to see that the company, as well as the coun try, would be benefitted by considering what this duty, one year with another, amounts to, that by remitting so much in the revenue the wood might pafs free, and prevent the lofs of importing it from abroad.

A mode of this kind might be adopted for indigo, and other articles of foreign export, which are at present use. less productions of the country, not only by such impediments as I have just mentioned, to the extensive navigation of the Gadavery, but likewise the custom-houses on all the market roads in every part of the country.

If it then appears that the company's possessions do not yield enough to supply the market, the Lombardies will bring indigo as well as oil seeds from the Mahratta countries in exchange for salt.

In the various expeditions of the Soubah, the Lombardies are entertained as the carriers of stores; but on the coast they are taxed by every petty zemindar through. whose districts they pass, in a duty of eleven rupees perhundred, for the cattle in their encampment, notwithstanding your salt farms would be useless without them.

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Dec. 30. 1789,

THE vegetation at sea of the plants from Kew garden. being so small, amounting only to five inches in height, and three quarters of an inch in circumference, the arrival of insects from America must be precarious.

It is, therefore, my opinion, they thould be first introduced at St Helena; and for that purpose a dozen nopal: plants are in readinefs, for the care and culture of which it

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will be necessary you should write to the government of that place, by the fhip General Goddard, now at anchor in the roads, under dispatch.

I must likewise request your issuing orders for that ship to receive the plants on board.


I am, &c.

To Dr James Anderson.

Dec. 30. 1789.


I AM directed by government to acknowledge the receipt of your several letters under the date 24th ult. and 11th, 23d, 29th inst. The small parcels accompanying them are to be sent by the General Goddard to the honourable the Court of Directors, and an order will be given to the commander to receive the box mentioned by you to be left at St Helena.

It appearing to government that your late letters to them contain remarks on various points which do not seem to have any relation to the nopalry, or to fall within the line of your department, you are therefore requested to confine your observations to the objects first intended on the establishment of the present nopalry, and the introduction of plants. I am, &c. CHARLES WHITE, Sec..

From this last it will appear that it was only in obedience to the commands of his superiors that Mr Hollond gave any countenance to these pursuits. Since the abdication, or flight, or what you please to call it, of that gentleman, the administration of Madras has been more favourable to the views of our patriotic improver.

Since that time, notwithstanding the war, so unfavourable to his views, Dr Anderson prosecutes his. discoveries with unwearied attention. The rearing of silk, and the cultivation of indigo, are the objects he

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