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To delineate these matters in their proper colours, to describe their immediate nature and tendency, and point out their more remote consequences, would have required the greatest hiftorical and political abilities. Unequal to the task, as we are in every degree, it will afford us much satisfaction, if we are the means of preserving a memorial of events, which may be of use to the future historian in his researches, and if our readers are of opinion, that however we have failed in the execution, we have not been deficient in pains and industry.



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Revolution in the political system of Europe. Balance of power. In what

Tefpert other states may probably be effected by the dismemberment of Poland. Germanic body. The two northern crowns. France. Maritime powers. Revolutions in Sweden and Denmark. Mysterious appearance of the northern politicks, Troubles in different parts of America. Ina furrection of the sates in the Dutch colony of Surinam. Infurrection in the Brazils. Insurrection on the coast of Chili.

HE year of which we are been for some ages an object of now to treat, though it adds unremitting attention, with most of

but little to the splendour the states of Europe. It shews us of history, abounds with those ma- the ruin of one great and ancient terials which form the most serious state, and an almost unparalleled and important parts of it. It pre-- revolution in the internal governfents us with a revolution as unex- ment of another. While the staterpected as important, in that general man may here behold, the ineffisystem of policy, and arrangement cacy of treaties, guaranties, and of power and dominion, which had sanctions, the philosopher and ciVOL, XY,





tizen of the world will shed a tear, powerful for the rest, was great

and on the utter subversion of almost liberal, and though the result of all the remaining monuments of barbarism, was founded upon the public liberty; and tremble for most enlarged principles of the the very few that yet continue. wisest policy. It is owing to this

The prefent violent dismember- fyftem, that this small part of the ment and partition of Poland, with western world has acquired fo astoout the pretence of war, or even the nithing (and otherwise unaccountcolour of right, is to be considere able) a fuperiority over the rest of ed as the first very great breach the globe. The fortune and glory in the modern political system of of Greece proceeded from a similar Europe. It is not (fay the po- fystem of policy, though formed fiticians of the continent) fapping upon a {maller scale. Both her by degrees the constitution of our fortune and glory expired along great western republic, it is laying with the system. the axe at once to the root, in such Some of the most delart provinces a manner as threatens the total in Asia, have been repeatedly the overthrow of the whole. Such is feats of arts, arms, commerce, and the condition of mankind, that we literature. These potent and civiare ever in extremes, and when we lized nations have repeatedly pehave carried any one to its greatest rished, for want of any union, or extent of evil or folly, we fly back system of policy of this nature, with equal violence to its opposite. Some Scythian, or other barbarian, The surprize of a town, the inva- has been suffered, unnoticed, to fion of an infignificant province, or subdue his neighbouring tribes; the election of a prince, who had each new conqueft was made an neither abilities to be feared, nor instrument to the succeeding, until virtues to be loved, would some at length become irresistable, he years ago have armed one half of swept whole empires with their arts Europe, and called forth all the at- and sciences off the face of the tention of the other. We now be- earth. In the same manner a banhold the destruction of a great king. ditti, who were afterwards called dom, with the consequent ditar- Romans, were suffered to accumurangement of power, dominion, and late power, until they had subdued commerce, with as total an indif- the bravest and fiercest nations, and ference and unconcern, as we could became the masters and deftroyers read an account of the exterminat- of the beft part of the world. Each ing one hord of Tartars by another, state looked on with indifference, in the days of Genhizan or Ta- or enjoyed a malignant pleafure at merlane.

the ruin of its neighbour, without The idea of considering Europe reflecting that the weapons and as a vast commonwealth, of the le- power of which he was deprived, veral parts being diftinet and lepa- would be quickly employed to its rate, though politically and com- own destruction. mercially united, of keeping them It will not be denied, that the independant, though unequal in idea of supporting a balance of power, and of preventing any one, power has in some cases been carby any means, from becoming too ried to an extreme; that by artfully

employemploying it to operate upon the jury from others, it has no concern pallions and jealouties of mankind, in the quarrels, interests, or misit has been made an engine fub- fortunes of its neighbours. At such servient to the designs of interested a time, that felfthness which looks and ambitious persons, and has only to the present moment, beperhaps thereby been productive of comes a fashion, if not the standard fome unneceflary wars. The same of policy; it is as painful then to objections, with others, might be look forward, as it is to those who made to that glorious jealousy with have weak nerves to look down á respect to civil liberty, which has precipice; treaties, alliances, and been the admiration and envy of a common cause, are exploded, as all ages; which for the happiness matters which do not concern the of mankind should fubfift in full present day; and all enlarged ideas, vigour in every state in the world, of general justice, of a political and to their misfortune and pu- equality, and of remote, though nishment is scarcely alive in a few. certain confequences, are ridiculed Even that, the noblest quality of as the dreams of lunaticks. the human mind, has been produc

How far such a defcription may tive of wars, and of other evils. be at present applicable to a confi

We are not to look for perfection derable part of Europe, we shall not in any thing that we are capable of pretend to determine; in particuunderstanding. All human regula- lar, how far the insular situation of tions are intermixed with evil and Great-Britain, weakens the applia error, and all that is in our power, cation of these general principles is to adopt those which are the with regard to her, may be a quesclearest from both. The same prin- tion. It may not, however, be altociples that make it incumbent upon gether an hazardous opinion, that the patriotic member of a republica lingle man, caft out from the laws, to watch with the strictest attention the protection, and the commerce the motions and defigns of his pow- of his whole species, might in that erful fellow-citizens, should equal- folitary lituation, with as rational ly operate upon the different fiates and well-grounded a probability, in such a community as Europe, propose to himself convenience and who are also the great members of a fecurity, as any single state, in the larger commonwealth. Wars, how- present political and physical state ever it may be lamented, are ine- of Europe, could expect indepenvitable in every state of human dence and safety, unconnected witá nature; they may be deferred, but all the others. they cannot be wholly avoided; and The free states and cities of Gerto purchase present quiet, at the many seem to be more immediateprice of future fecurity, is undoubt- ly affected by the present extraoredly a cowardice of the moft de- dinary transaction, than any other grading and basest nature. part of Europe. Indeed if the par.

We find, however, that it has tition of Poland takes place in its been at all times the language of a utmost extent, the existence of the voluptuous and frivolous age, that Germanic body in its present form, while a ttate is flourishing within for any length of time, will be a irelf, and suffers no immediate in matter rather to be wilhud for than

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expected. The extraordinary power against the overwhelming power to which the houles of Austria and and ambition of Russia. Some small Brandenburg have rifen within a alterations in the system of governfew year:, was already fufficiently ment, which might have been acalarming to the other parts of that complished with little violence, and body. Their natural jealousy, and infinite benefit to the Poles, would acquired animosity, feemed how- have rendered this barrier inexpugever to counteract their ambition, nabie. If the princes of Saxony, and to afford a tolerable security, who so long governed this country, that they would not join in any had profited of their advantage, scheme destructive to the other this reformation in the government states; at the same time, that their of Poland would have long since near equality, made it impossible taken place. A great writer of a

а for one to be dangerous while op- former age affirmed, that if everthe posed by the other.

Turks conquered Germany, it must The hopes founded upon these be through Poland; it may now specious appearances were but with greater justice be affirmed, short-lived. By one of those extra- that it is the road by which the ordinary movements of the human Rullians will enter Germany. mind, which are as little to be fore. The two northern crowns are seen as accounted for, and of those likely to be as much affected by unexpected revolutions, which at this revolution in the state of Pocertain times take place in all hu- land, as the Germanic body; tho' man affairs, the emperor is become the effects may not be so speedily a personal admirer of the King of felt by the former. The Danish Pruffia, and these two irreconcile- pofleffions, in Holstein, particularable enemies, enter into a combina- ly, will be in a very precarious fitution with a third, whom they both ation. The Grand Duke of Russia mortally hated and feared, to join is a dangerous neighbour to a weak in the destruction of a power with state. In the present instance, it is whom they were all in alliance, worse than neighbourhood, as the who could not be dangerous or pre- two princes have a joint dominion judicial to any of them, and whom in a great number of districts, and they were all bound to protect by even towns, in their mixed territothe mott sacred treaties, guaranties, ries; the limits in others can neand declarations.

ver be exactly ascertained; and the It is but a poor satisfaction for rights or claims in all, would afthe present sufferers to reflect, upon ford room for endless litigation. what may afford fomeinstruction to Ancient griefs and injuries might pofterity in the event, that the ruin- also be eatily revived, had not the ous ettects of this cruel, unjutt, and present times already clearly dethort-lighted fyftem of policy, may monstrated, that where there is fufin all human probability, most fa- ficient force to support a claim, all tally revert upon the two powers, appearances of right and justice are who have so unnaturally entered totally unneceffary. into the combination. Poland was What effect this new partition the natural barrier of Germany, as may have upon the other states well as of the northern crowns, of Europe, will depend in a great



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